FROM KAZAKHDARIA — UP TO KYZYL RAWAT

FROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATWe have millions of hectares of the desert in Uzbekistan. People suppress the ecosystem and strengthens the processes of desertification, land degradation. But it may be otherwise, when a person does without damage to nature. In 2008 started the project of the UNDP-GEF, the Government of Uzbekistan to achieve ecosystem stability on degraded land in Karakalpakstan and the Kyzylkum desert. For the experiment were selected two of the settlements.FROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATWe have millions of hectares of the desert in Uzbekistan. People suppress the ecosystem and strengthens the processes of desertification, land degradation. But it may be otherwise, when a person does without damage to nature. In 2008 started the project of the UNDP-GEF, the Government of Uzbekistan to achieve ecosystem stability on degraded land in Karakalpakstan and the Kyzylkum desert. For the experiment were selected two of the settlements.

The village Kazakhdarya is located near the channel of Amu Darya river, which name is Kazakhdarya too. This channel flowed to the Aral sea. When the sea receded, people find themselves under the pressure of the desert. One of the tasks of the project is in the sands consolidating. The massif of moving sands takes about five hundred hectares. We can see the process near the village in several kilometers. In this area in the first year of the experiment the project tested two types of mechanical protection, on the second — three more.

FROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATFROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATUnder the guise of mechanical protection some types of local plant (candim) were planted. Сandim produces seeds a year later. The wind blows seeds. Seeds begin new life in the desert. Several types of desert vegetation deserved an excellent reputation.

— It will be a great green massif during 3-4 years. This green massif will create comfortable conditions for living of the local population, — project manager Irina Bekmirzaeva says.

The mechanical protection is made of reeds. It provide high survival rate for seeds and planting stock. For growing planting stock there were created cattery (4 hectares) near the village. In this cattery several types of fruit and decorative trees were also tested. More than six hundred young trees were awarded to the local residents in the third year of the experiment. The experts gave explanations to the local people how to care young trees.

FROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATFROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATThe population was not engaged in farming before. Only a few green courtyards were in the whole village. On the basis of them the field agricultural school was opened to train agricultural skills. Many meetings of experts with the inhabitants of Kazakhdarya were held. Together they sought a solution, how to increase the output of the land. In the framework of the project five pumps were purchased for irrigation of remote private households, schools and hospitals. Groups of water users were formed. They use the pump equipment on the basis of cooperation.

FROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATFROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATEvery family has sheep, goats, cattle. The introduction of sustainable desert-pasture cattle breeding is an important task. In the course of the experiment veterinary item was opened in Kazakhdarya. The specialist was trained to artificial insemination of cows. Equipment and seed material of highly productive Kazakh white-headed breed was purchased. Now the health of private livestock and herds of collective farm (shirkat) are under control. The improvement of the breed through artificial insemination allows increasing the yield, the volume of meat production and income.

Unlike the inhabitants of Kazakhdaria (their mane activity was fishing in the Aral sea until recently), the residents of Kyzyl Rawat were engaged in animal husbandry from time immemorial. Kyzyl Rawat is the second project plot, it is located in Bukhara region in the Kyzylkum desert.

FROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATFROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATThe local people are accustomed the Kyzylkum desert. But here the situation requires secure loose sand dunes around the village. Saxaul black proved itself perfectly.

The root system of the plant at the age of one year reaches a half of meter. Five years later saxaul grows up to 5-6 meters. The branched roots of this plant go down to 10 meters deep, clasping sand and extracting water.

FROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATPrivate dehkan farms have over three thousand Karakul sheep. Shirkat has seven thousand heads of Karakul sheep, but breeding work was not carried out. The project purchased eight breeding sheep. Already the first kittens convinced: the brood of excellent quality. It is possible to make a selection of the entire population. And then Kyzyl Rawat shirkat will become a breeding farm, increase revenues of Karakul.

What\’s the problem? Grazing of the cattle is attached to the wells. Only eight wells (out of 29 wells) operate on the territory of the shirkat. The land around eight wells trampled, degraded. The task is to restore the two wells. Their restoration of wells will become an example for imitation.

FROM KAZAKHDARIA - UP TO KYZYL RAWATThe desert can be severe and even ruthless. A very important stopping the degradation of the land. Desertification, land degradation should not become a disaster for nature and people even in the era of climate changing, when becomes even hotter.

Nataliya SHULEPINA
Photo by the author
Russian version — degradation
sreda.uz, 4.8.2013


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